Objectives of Rehabilitation
- Provision of appropriate medical facilities and treatment as early as possible.
- Provision of suitable education for the children and disable.
- Assistance in achieving and maintaining a state of good mental health, including positive psychological attitude towards the handicap in the society.
- Education of general public regarding the needs and worth of handicap person.
- Giving vocational assistance in relation with the extent of disability.
Some other objectives are –
- To eliminate disability
- To reduce or remove disability to the greatest extent
- To retrain the person with residual physical abilities and built his capabilities.
Principal of Rehabilitation:
- It should be started at the earliest time in order to ensure best result
- To be administered in conjunction with specific medical and surgical treatment, specific for a disability.
- To give attention and listen to patient carefully.
- Building up the patient to the highest possible level of functional activity.
- Knowing the socio-economic standard of the disabled and
- Training and retraining in a particular task (job oriented)
Levels of Prevention
Primary level of prevention:
These are the actions taken to reduce the occurrence of impairment.
- Vaccination and immunization
- Sanitation and safe water
- Health education
- Proper nutrition
Secondary level of prevention:
It is the control of or limiting the consequences of impairment once it has occurred.
- Early treatment
- Effective drug therapy
- Correction of deformity
Tertiary level of prevention:
Here the treatment aims at preventing the occurrence from becoming handicap.
- Therapeutic measures provided by physiotherapists, occupational therapists and speech therapists.
- Training in self care activities i.e. ADL’s.
- Providing technical aids i.e. orthoses and prosthesis.
- Social and vocational confidence
- Providing education and suitable job for the handicap
- Education for improving the attitude of family towards the patient
Rehabilitation team comprises of –
- Physiatrist – a trained physician in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR).
- Occupational therapist
- Speech therapist
- Clinical Psychologist
- Rehab nurse
- Prosthetist and orthotist
- Social worker
- Vocational counsellor and
- Recreational therapist
The role of physiotherapist as a member of rehabilitation team is –
- Evaluation and assessment of range of motion and strength,
- Restoration of movement and strength,
- Use to superficial and deep physical agents (modalities),
- Work on balance, coordination, transfer techniques, gait and ambulation,
- Training and research and
- Creation of a barrier free environment for the patient.
REHABILITATION CENTRES/ INSTITUTES IN INDIA
- National institute for visually handicap, NIVH (Dehradun)
- National institute for hearing handicap, NIHH (Bombay)
- National institute for mentally handicap, NIMH (Sikandrabad)
- Institute for physically handicapped, IPH (New Delhi)
- National institute for mental health and neurosciences, NIMHNS (Bangalore)
- National institute for rehabilitation training and research, NIRTAR (Cuttack)
- National institute of orthopedically handicapped, NIOH (Calcutta)